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Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti - Testata per la stampa

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Richard Lewontin

Richard Lewontin

Professore di Zoologia e Biologia nella Harvard University

- s.s. 6 settembre 2001, s.s.s. 1 settembre 2008

Born: March 29, 1929, New York, New York
Education: Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 1951, A.B. Biology
Columbia University, New York, NY 1952, M.S. Math. Statistics
Columbia University, New York, NY 1954, Ph.D. Zoology

Fellowship and Awards:
Higgins Fellow in Columbia University, 1951-52
Boese Fellow in Columbia University, 1952-53 National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellow, 1952-53, 1953-54
National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, 1954-55 (declined)
Fulbright Fellow, 1961-62
National Science Foundation Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, 1961-62, 1971-72
Honorary Doctorate, University of Paris, 1983
Honorary Doctorate, McMaster University, 1994
Sewall Wright Prize, American Society of Naturalists, 1994
Doctor honoris causa, Honorary Degree, University of Athens, 1996
Doctor honoris causa, Honorary Degree, University of Crete, 1996

Positions Held:
Reader in Biometrics, Columbia University, 1953-54
Assistant Professor of Genetics, North Carolina State College, 1954-58
Assistant Professor of Biology, University of Rochester, 1958-59
Associate Professor of Biology, University of Rochester, 1959-61
University Seminar Associate, Columbia University, 1959-65
Professor of Biology, University of Rochester, 1962-64
Professor of Zoology and Mathematical Biology, University of Chicago, 1964-68
Associate Dean, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago, 1966-68
Visiting Distinguished Professor, Syracuse University, 1967
Professor of Biology and Mathematical Biology, University of Chicago, 1968-73
Chairman, Program in Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 1968-73
Louis Block Professor of Zoology, University of Chicago, 1969-73
Chairman, Board of Academic Advisors, Marlboro College, 1972-92
Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology and Professor of Biology, Harvard University, 1973-98
Professor of Population Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, 1977-91
Alexander Agassiz Research Professor, Harvard University, 1998-

Other Pertinent Data:
Genetics Study Section, National Institutes of Health, 1973-76
Genetics Advisory Panel, National Science Foundation, 1963-65, 1969-71
Regional Advisory Panel, Biometrics Society, 1963-65
Vice President, Society for the Study of Evolution, 1963
Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1965-
Board of Directors, American Eugenics Society, 1966-
Associate Editor, Evolution, 1959-63
Editorial Board, The American Naturalist, 1962-65
Editor, The American Naturalist, 1965-69
Associate Editor, Der Zuchter, 1965-82
Editorial Board, Biochemical Genetics, 1966
Editorial Board, Genetics, 1966-77
Member, National Academy of Sciences, 1968-71
Resigned Editorial Board, Science, 1968-70
Advisory Board, Isotope and Radiation Research Bulletin (Egypt), 1968
Advisory Board, Biochemical Genetics, 1968
Advisory Board, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1968
President, Society for the Study of Evolution, 1969-70
Editorial Board, BioScience, 1971-74
Visiting Professor, College de France, 1980
President, American Society of Naturalists, 1982-83
Science Board, Santa Fe Institute, 1996-
President, Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1997

Update 03/08/01
1. 1952. An elementary text on evolution. Review of A Textbook of Evolution, by E.O. Dodson. Evol. 6(2): 247-248.
2. 1953. The effect of compensation on populations subject to natural selection. Am Nat. 87: 375-381.
3. 1954. Review of Problems of Life. Am. J. Sci. 252: 123-124.
4. 1954. Review of Biology and Language. Am. J. Sci. 252: 124-126.
5. 1954. Familial occurrence of migraine headache: A study of heredity (with H. Goodell and H.G. Wolff). A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 72: 325-334.
6. 1955. The effects of population density and composition on viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Evol. 9: 27-41.
7. 1956. Estimation of the number of different classes in a population (with T. Prout). Biometrics 12: 211-223.
8. 1956. Studies on homeostasis and heterozygosity. I. General considerations. Abdominal bristle number in second chromosome homozygotes of Drosophila melanogaster. Am. Nat. 90: 237-255.
9. 1956. A reply to Professor Dempster's comments on homeostasis (Letters to the Editors). Am. Nat. 90: 386-388.
10. 1957. The adaptations of populations to varying environments. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22: 395-408.
11. 1958. A general method for investigating the equilibrium of gene frequency in a population. Gen. 43: 419-434.
12. 1958. Studies of heterozygosity and homeostasis. II. Loss of heterosis in a constant environment. Evol. 12: 494-503.
13. 1959. On the anomalous response of Drosophila pseudoobscura to light. Am. Nat. 93: 321-328.
14. 1959. The goodness-of-fit test for detecting natural selection (with C.C. Cockerham). Evol. 13: 561-564.
15. 1960. Quantitative Zoology, 2nd Ed. (with G.G. Simpson and A. Roe). Harcourt Brace & Co., NY.
16. 1960. Interaction between inversion polymorphism of two chromosome pairs in the grasshopper Moraba scurra. Evol. 14: 116-129.
17. 1960. The evolutionary dynamics of a polymorphism in the house mouse (with L.C. Dunn). Gen. 45: 705-722.
18. 1960. The evolutionary dynamics of complex polymorphisms (with K. Kojima). Evol. 14: 458-472.
19. 1960. Review of Introduction to Quantitative Genetics by D.S. Falconer. Am. Sci. 48: 274A-276A.
20. 1961. Evolution and the theory of games. J. Theor. Biol. 1: 382-403.
21. 1961. Review of Biochemical Genetics. Am. Sci. 49: 190A.
22. 1962. Review of Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Genetic Linkage by N.T.J. Bailey. Am. Sci. 50: 320A-322A.
23. 1962. Review of An Outline of Chemical Genetics by B. Strauss. Human Biol. pp. 235-236.
24. 1962. Interdeme selection controlling a polymorphism in the house mouse. Am. Nat. 96: 65-78.
25. 1963. Interaction of genotypes determining viability in Drosophila busckii (with Y. Matsou). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 49: 270-278.
26. 1963. Relative fitness of geographic races of Drosophila serrata (with L.C Birch, T. Dobzhansky and P.O. Elliott). Evol. 17: 72-83.
27. 1963. Models, mathematics, and metaphors. Synthese 15: 222-244.
28. 1963. Cytogenetics of the grasshopper Moraba scurra. VII. Geographic variation of adaptive properties of inversions (with M.J.D. White and L.E. Andrew). Evol. 17: 147-162.
29. 1964. The interaction of selection and linkage. I. General considerations: Heterotic models. Gen. 49: 49-67.
30. 1964. A molecular messiah: The new gospel of genetics? Essay review of The Mechanics of Inheritance by F. Stahl. Sci. 145: 525.
31. 1964. The role of linkage in natural selection. Proc. XI Int. Cong. of Genetics, The Hague, September 1964. Genetics Today, pp. 517-525.
32. 1964. The interaction of selection and linkage. II. Optimum models. Gen. 50: 757-782.
33. 1964. Review of Elizabethan Acting. The Seventeenth Century News.
34. 1964. The capacity for increase in chromosomally polymorphic and monomorphic populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura (with T. Dobzhansky and O. Pavlovsky). Heredity 19: 597-614.
35. 1965. Selection in and of populations, pp 299-311. IN Ideas in Modern Biology. Proc. of XVI Int. Cong. of Zool., Vol. 6, J.A. Moore, ed. Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.
36. 1965. The robustness of homogeneity tests in 2 X N tables (with J. Felsenstein). Biometrics 21: 19-33.
37. 1965. Selection for colonizing ability, pp. 77-94. IN The Genetics of Colonizing Species, Herbert Baker, ed. Academic Press, Inc., NY.
38. 1965. Review of The Effects of Inbreeding on Japanese Children. Sci. 150: 332-333.
39. 1965. Review of Stochastic Models in Medicine and Biology. Am. Sci. 53: 254A-255A.
40. 1966. Adaptation and natural selection (essay review). Sci. 152: 338-339.
41. 1966. Is nature probable or capricious? Bio Sci. 16: 25-27.
42. 1966. Differences in bristle-making abilities in scute and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster (with S.S. Young). Gen. Res. 7: 295-301.
43. 1966. On the measurement of relative variability. Syst. Zool. 15: 141-142.
44. 1966. Stable equilibria under optimizing selection (with M. Singh). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 56: 1345-1348.
45. 1966. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. I. The number of alleles at different loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura (with J.L. Hubby). Gen. 54: 577-594.
46. 1966. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. II. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in the natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura (with J.L. Hubby). Gen. 54: 595-609.
47. 1966. Hybridization as a source of variation for adaptation to new environments (with L.C. Birch). Evol. 20: 315-336.
48. 1966. Review of The Theory of Inbreeding. Sci. 150: 1800-1801.
49. 1967. The genetics of complex systems. Proc. 5th Berkeley Symp. on Math. Stat. and Probability. Berkeley: University of Calif. Press, Vol. IV, pp. 439-455.
50. 1967. The interaction of selection and linkage. III. Synergistic effect of blocks of genes (with P. Hull). Der Zuchter 37: 93-98.
51. 1967. The principle of historicity in evolution. IN Mathematical Challenges of the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution by P.S. Moorhead and M.M. Kaplan. Wistar Symp. Monograph No. 5: 81-94.
52. 1967. An estimate of average heterozygosity in man. Am. J. Hum. Gen. 19: 681- 685.
53. 1967. Population genetics. Ann. Rev. Gen. 1 37-70.
54. 1968. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. III. Direct evidence of coadaptation in gene arrangements of Drosophila (with S. Prakash). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 59: 398-405.
55. 1968. A note on evolution and changes in the quantity of genetic information (with C.H. Waddington). pp.109-110. IN Towards a Theoretical Biology, I, Aldine Publ.
56. 1968. Essay review of Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology, J. Cairns, et al., eds., (Cold Spring Harbor Lab. of Quant. Biol., Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1966, xii + 340). J. Hist. Biol. 1(1): 155-161.
57. 1968. The concept of evolution. In article "Evolution", pp. 202-210, IN International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Macmillan and Co. and The Free Press.
58. 1968. The effect of differential viability on the population dynamics of t alleles in the house mouse. Evol. 22: 262-273.
59. 1968. Selective mating, assortative mating, and inbreeding: Definitions and implications (with D. Kirk and J. Crow). Eugenics Quarterly 15: 141-143.
60. 1969. The bases of conflict in biological explanation. J. Hist. Biol. 2(1): 35-45.
61. 1969. On population growth in a randomly varying environment (with D. Cohen). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 62(4): 1056-1060.
62. 1969. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. IV. Patterns of genic variation in central, marginal and isolated populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura (with S. Prakash and J.L. Hubby). Gen. 61: 841-858.
63. 1969. The meaning of stability. (Reprinted from Diversity and Stability in Ecological Systems) Brookhave Symp. in Biol. 22: 13-24.
64. 1970. On the irrelevance of genes, pp. 63-72. IN Towards a Theoretical Biology. 3: Drafts. Edinburgh University Press.
65. 1970. Race and intelligence. Bull. Atom. Sci. 26(Mar): 2-8.
66. 1970. Further remarks on race and the genetics of intelligence. Bull. Atom. Sci. 26(May): 23-25.
67. 1970. Genetic variation in the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), a phylogenetic "relic" (with R.K. Selander, S.Y. Yang and W.E. Johnson). Evol. 24: 402-414.
68. 1970. Is the gene the unit of selection? Gen. 65: 707-734 (with I. Franklin).
69. 1970. The units of selection. Ann. Rev. Ecol. and System. l: 1-18.
70. 1971. Genes in populations - end of the beginning (with J.F. Crow and M. Kimura). Quart. Rev. Biol 46: 66-67. Review of An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory,
71. 1971. Evolutionary significance of linkage and epistasis, (with K. Kojima). pp. 367-388. IN Biomathematics Vol. I: Mathematical Topics in Population Genetics.
72. 1971. The effect of genetic linkage on the mean fitness of a population. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68: 984-986.
73. 1971. The Yahoos ride again. Evol. 25: 442.
74. 1971. Science and ethics. BioScience 21: 799.
75. 1971. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. V. Further direct evidence of coadaptation in inversions of Drosophila (with S. Prakash). Gen. 69: 405-408.
76. 1972. Testing the theory of natural selection. Nat. 236: 181-182.
77. 1972. The apportionment of human diversity. Evol. Biol. 6: 381-398.
78. 1972. Comparative evolution at the levels of molecules, organisms and populations (with G.L. Stebbins). Proc. VI Berkeley Symp. on Math. Stats. and Probability 5: 23-42.
79. 1972. The apportionment of human diversity, pp. 381-398. IN Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 6, T. Dobzhansky, M.K. Hecht and W.C. Steere. Appleton-Century-Crofts, NY, NY.
80. 1973. Distribution of gene frequency as a test of the theory of the selective neutrality of polymorphism (with J. Krakauer). Gen. 74: 175-195.
81. 1974. Population genetics. Ann. Rev. Gen. 7: 1-17.
82. 1974. Molecular heterosis for heat-sensitive enzyme alleles (with R.S. Singh and J.L. Hubby). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 1808-1810.
83. 1974. The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change. Columbia University Press, NY. 346 pps.
84. 1974. Annotation: The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. Am. J. Hum. Gen. 26: 400-411.
85. 1974. Darwin and Mendel -- the materialist revolution, pp. 166-183. IN The Heritage of Copernicus: Theories "More Pleasing to the Mind", J. Neyman, ed. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
86. 1975. The problem of genetic diversity. Harvey Lecture Series 70: 1-20.
87. 1975. Selection in complex genetic systems. III. An effect of allele multiplicity with two loci (with M.W. Feldman, I.R. Franklin and F.B. Christiansen). Gen. 79: 333-347.
88. 1975. Review of The Modern Concept of Nature by H.J. Muller. Soc. Biol. 22: 96-98.
89. 1975. The heritability hang-up (with M.W. Feldman). Sci. 190: 1163-1168.
90. 1975. Genetic aspects of intelligence. Ann. Rev. Gen. 9: 382-405.
91. 1976. Review of Race Differences in Intelligence by J.C. Loehlin, G. Lindzey and J.N. Spuhler. Am. J. of Hum. Gen. 28: 92-97.
92. 1976. Adattamento genetico. Enciclopedia del Novecento 1: 61-68.
93. 1976. Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura (with R.S. Singh and A.A. Felton). Gen. 84: 609-629.
94. 1976. Race and intelligence, pp. 78-92. IN The IQ Controversy, N.J. Block and G. Dworkin, eds. Pantheon Books, NY, NY.
95. 1976. Further remarks on race and the genetics of intelligence, pp. 107-112. IN The IQ Controversy, N.J. Block and G. Dworkin, eds. Pantheon Books, NY, NY.
96. 1976. The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes, pp. 179-193. IN The IQ Controversy, N.J. Block and G. Dworkin, eds. Pantheon Books, NY, NY.
97. 1976. The problem of Lysenkoism (with R. Levins), pp. 32-64. IN The Radicalisation of Science, H. Rose and S. Rose, eds. MacMillan, London.
98. 1976. The fallacy of biological determinism. The Sciences 16: 6-10.
99. 1976. Sociobiology -- a caricature of Darwinism. Phil. Sci. Assoc. 2: 22-31.
100. 1977. The relevance of molecular biology to plant and animal breeding. Proc. Int. Conf. on Quant. Gen., Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 55-62.
101. 1977. Population genetics. Proc. 5th Int. Cong. of Hum. Gen., Excerpta Medica Int. Cong. Series No. 441, pp. 13-18.
102. 1977. Adattamento. Enciclopedia Einaudi 1: 198-214.
103. 1977. Biological determinism as a social weapon, pp. 6-18. IN Biology as a Social Weapon. Burgess Pub. Co., Minneapolis, MN.
104. 1977. Caricature of Darwinism. Review of The Selfish Gene, by R. Dawkins. Nat. 266: 283-284.
105. 1978. Heterosis as an explanation for large amounts of genic polymorphism (with L.R. Ginzburg and S.D. Tuljapurkar). Gen. 88: 149-170.
106. 1978. Fitness, survival and optimality. IN Analysis of Ecological Systems, D.J. Horn et al., eds., Ohio State University Press, Columbus.
107. 1978. The extent of genetic variation at a highly polymorphic esterase locus in Drosophila pseudoobscura (with J. Coyne and A.A. Felton). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 5090.
108. 1978. Evoluzione. Enciclopedia Einaudi V: 995-1051.
109. 1978. Adaptation. Sci. Am. 239(3): 212-228.
110. 1978. Geneticheskie Osnovi Evolutsil. Mir Publishers, Moscow. (Translation: The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 1974).
111. 1979. La Base Genética de la Evolución. Ediciones Omega, S.A., Casanove, 220 Barcelona, Spain. 328 pps. (Translation: The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 1974).
112. 1979. Sociobiology as an adaptationist program. Behav. Sci. 24: 5-14.
113. 1979. Theodosius Dobzhansky. (Biographical article) IN International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. The Free Press, MacMillan Publishing Co., NY.
114. 1979. Single- and multiple-locus measures of genetic distance between groups. Am. Nat. 112(988): 1138-1139.
115. 1979. The genetics of electrophoretic variation (with J.A. Coyne and W.F. Eanes). Gen. 92: 353-361.
116. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme (with S.J. Gould). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 205: 581-598.
117. 1979. The sensitivity of gel electrophoresis as a detector of genetic variation (with J.A.M. Ramshaw and J.A. Coyne). Gen. 93: 1019-1037.
118. 1979. Mutazione/selezione. Enciclopedia Einaudi IX: 647-695.
119. 1980. Dialectics and reductionism in ecology (with R. Levins). Synthese 43: 47-78.
120. 1980. Sociobiology: Another biological determinism. Int. J. Health Sciences 10(3): 347-363.
121. 1980. Economics down on the farm. Review of Farm and Food Policy: Issues of the 1980's by D. Paarlberg. Nat. 287: 661-662.
122. 1980. The political economy of food and agriculture (World Agricultural Research Project). Int. J. Health Sciences 10: 161-170.
123. 1981. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 2nd Ed. by D.T. Suzuki, A.J.F. Griffiths and RCL). W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA. 711 pps.
124. 1981. Evolution/Creation debate: A time for truth. BioScience 31: 559.
125. 1981. Sleight of hand. Review of Genes, Mind and Culture, by C.J. Lumsden and E.O. Wilson. The Sciences 21: 23-26.
126. 1981. Review of The Mismeasure of Man by S.J. Gould. NY Rev. of Books.
127. 1981. Gene flow and the geographical distribution of a molecular polymorphism in Drosophila pseudoobscura. J.S. Jones, S.H. Bryant, RCL, J.A. Moore and T. Prout. Gen. 198: 157-178.
128. 1981. Theoretical population genetics in the evolutionary synthesis. IN The Evolutionary Synthesis, E. Mayr and W. Province, eds., Harvard University Press.
129. 1981. Dobzhansky's Genetics of Natural Populations I-XLIII, edited with J.A. Moore, W.B. Provine and B. Wallace. Columbia University Press, NY.
130. 1981. L'Evolution. La Pensee 223: 16-24.
131. 1982. Artifact, cause and genic selection (with E. Sober). Phil. Sci. 49: 157-180.
132. 1982. A study of reaction norms in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura (with A. Gupta). Evol. 36: 934-938.
133. 1982. Review of Matter, Life and Generation by S.A. Roe. The Sciences, December.
134. 1982. Prospectives, perspectives, and retrospectives. Review of Perspectives on Evolution by R. Milkman. Paleobiol. 8(3).
135. 1982. Organism and environment. IN Learning, Development and Culture: Essays in Evolutionary Epistemology, H. Plotkin, ed., Wiley, Chichester, England.
136. 1982. Review. Evolution and the Theory of Games by J.M. Smith, Cambridge University Press. Nat. 300: 113-114.
137. 1982. Human Diversity. Sci. Am., W.H. Freeman and Co., Redding, CT.
138. 1982. Elementary errors about evolution. Review of Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The 'Panglossian paradigm' defined by D. Dennett. Behav. and Brain Sci. 6: 367.
139. 1983. The corpse in the elevator. Reviews of Against Biological Determinism and Toward a Liberating Biology by The Dialectics of Biology Group. NY Rev. of Books, 20 January.
140. 1983. Biological determinism, pp. 147-183. IN The Tanner Lectures on Human Values Vol. IV. University Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
141. 1983. Science as a social weapon, pp. 13-29. IN Occasional Papers I. Instit. for Advanced Study in the Humanities, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
142. 1983. Review of books by J. Miller & B. Van Loon, J.M. Smith, B.G. Gale, J. Gribben & J. Cherfas, N. Eldrige & I. Tattersall, D. Futuyma, P. Kitcher & M. Ruse. NY Rev. of Books, NY, April.
143. 1983. The organism as the subject and object of evolution. Scientia 188:65-82.
144. 1983. Gene, organism and environment, pp. 273-285. IN Evolution from Molecules to Men, D.S. Bendall, ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
145. 1983. Introduction. IN Scientists Confront Creationism, L.R. Godfrey and J.R. Coles, eds. W.W. Norton.
146. 1983. Discussion: Reply to Rosenberg on genic selectionism, E. Sober and RCL. Phil. Sci. 50: 648-650.
147. 1983. Il Gene e la su mente. Biologia, ideologia e natura humano. Mondadari. (Translation: Not in Our Genes, 1984).
148. 1984. Detecting population differences in quantitative characters as opposed to gene frequencies. Am. Nat. 123(1): 115-124.
149. 1984. Not In Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature by RCL, S. Rose and L. Kamin. Pantheon, New York. 322 pp.
150. 1984. Review of Women in Science: Portraits of a World in Transition by V. Gornick. NY Rev. of Books, NY, February 22.
151. 1984. Le determinisme biologique comme arme social, pp.233-241. IN Les Enjeux du Progress, A. Cambrosio and R. Duchesne, eds. Presses de l'Université du Québec.
152. 1984. La Diversité des Hommes. Pour la Sience, Paris. 179 pps. (Translation: Not In Our Genes, 1984).
153. 1985. Nearly identical allelic distributions of xanthine dehydrogenase in two populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. T.P. Keith, L.D. Brooks, RCL, J.C. Martinez-Cruzado and D.L. Rigbny. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2: 206-216.
154. 1985. Population genetics. Ann. Rev. Genet. 19: 81-102.
155. 1985. Population genetics, pp. 3-18. IN Evolution, Essays in Honor of John Maynard Smith by J. Greenwood and M. Slatkins, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
156. 1985. The Dialectical Biologist, R. Levins and RCL. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 303 pps.
157. 1985. Review of books by R.W. Clark, C. Darwin, V. Orel, L.J. Jordanova and J.P. Changeeuex. NY Rev. of Books 32(15).
158. 1985. In Current Contents. This week's citation classic by RCL and J.L. Hubby. October.
159. 1985. Menselijke Verscheidenheld. Natuur en Technick. Maastricht, Brussels. 178 pgs. (Translation: Human Diversity, 1984).
160. 1985. Nous e sommes pas programmé. Genetique, Heredité, Ideologia. Editions La Décca verte. (Translation: Not in Our Genes, 1984).
161. 1986. Technology, research, and the penetration of capital: The case of agriculture, RCL and J.P. Berlan. Monthly Rev. 38: 21-34.
162. 1986. The political economy of hybrid corn, J.P. Berlan and RCL. Monthly Rev. 38: 35-47.
163. 1986. Review of In the Name of Eugenics, by D.J. Kevles. Rev. Symp. Isis 77(2): 314-317.
164. 1986. Education and Class, by M. Schiff and RCL. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 243 pps.
165. 1986. A comment on the comments of Rogers and Felsenstein. Am. Nat. 127(5): 733-734.
166. 1986. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 3rd. edition by D. Suzuki, A. Griffith, RCL, and J. Miller. W.H. Freeman, New York. 612 pps.
167. 1986. Breeder's rights and patenting of life forms, J.P. Berlan and RCL. Nat. 322: 785-788.
168. 1986. How important is genetics for an understanding of evolution?, pp. 811-820. IN Science as a Way of Knowing, Vol III. Am. Soc. of Zoologists.
169. 1986. Inte I vara Gener: Biologi, Ideologi och Människaans natur. (Translation: Not In Our Genes), 1984.
170. 1987. The shape of optimality, pp. 151-159. IN The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality, J. Dupre, ed. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
171. 1987. Sequence of the structural gene for xanthine dehydrogenase (rosy locus) in Drosophila melanogaster, T.P. Keith, M.A. Riley, M. Kreitman, RCL, D. Curtis and G. Chambers. Gen 116: 64-73.
172. 1987. Polymorphism and heterosis: Old wine in new bottles and vice versa. J. Hist. Biol. 20: 337-349.
173. 1987. Are the races different? pp. 198-207. IN Anti-Racist Teaching. D. Gill and L. Levidor, eds.
174. 1987. L'Evolutión du Vivany: Enjeux Idéologiques, pp. 54-73. IN Les Scientifiques Parlent. A. Jacquard, ed. Hachette, France.
175. 1988. A general asymptotic property of two-locus selection models, RCL and M.W. Feldman. Theor. Pop. Biol. 34(2): 177-193.
176. 1988. On measures of gametic disequilibrium. Gen. 120: 849-852.
177. 1988. Aspects of wholes and parts in population biology, R. Levins and RCL. pp. 31-52. IN Evolution of Social Behavior and Integrative Levels, G. Greenberg and E. Tobach, eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Publ., NJ.
178. 1988. La paradoja de la adaptacion biologica. pp. 57-65. IN Polemicas contemporáneas en Evolución, A.O. Franco, ed. AGT Editor, SA, Mexico.
179. 1989. Inferring the number of evolutionary events from DNA coding sequence differences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 6(1): 15-32.
180. 1989. Review of Controlling Life: Jacques Loeb and the Engineering Ideal in Biology by P. Pauly, and Topobiology: An Introduction to Molecular Embryology by G. Edelman. NY Rev. of Books
181. 1989. DNA sequence polymorphism. pp. 33-37. IN Essays in Honor of Alan Robertson, W.G. Hill, and T.F.C. Mackey ed. University of Edinburgh Press.
182. 1989. On the characterization of density and resource availability, R. Levins and RCL. Am. Nat. 134: 513-524.
183. 1989. Distinguishing the forces controlling genetic variation at the Xdh locus in Drosophila pseudoobscura, M.A. Riley, M.E. Hallas and RCL. Gen. 123: 359-369.
184. 1989. Review of Evolutionary Genetics by J. Maynard Smith. Nat. 339: 107 (May 11).
185. 1989. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 4th edition by D.T. Suzuki, A.J.F. Griffiths, A.J.H. Miller & RCL. W.H. Freeman & Co., NY. 768 pps.
186. 1990. The political economy of agricultural research: The case of hybrid corn. pp. 613-626. IN Agroecology, C.R. Carroll, J.H. Vandermeer and P. Rosset, eds. McGraw-Hill Publ. Co., NY.
187. 1990. Review of Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History by S.J. Gould, Norton. NY Rev. of Books.
188. 1990. The evolution of cognition. pp. 229-240. IN Thinking, an Invitation to Cognitive Sciences, Vol 3., D.N. Osherson and E.E. Smith, eds. MIT Press, Cambridge.
189. 1991. How much did the brain have to change for speech? (Pinker and Bloom Commentary) Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
190. 1991. Review of The Structure and Confirmation of Evolution Theory by E.A. Lloyd, Greenwood Press, NY, 1988. Biol. and Phil. 6: 461-466.
191. 1991. Foreword, pp. xiii-xix. IN Organism and the Origins of Self, A.I. Tauber, ed. Kluwer Academic Publ., Boston.
192. 1991. Facts and the factitious in natural science. Critical Inquiry 18: 140-153.
193. 1991. Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA. Stoddart Publ. Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada. 100 pps. Also published as: Biology as Ideology. The Doctrine of DNA. Harper Collins, NY. 100 pps. 1993. The Doctrine of DNA. Biology as Ideology. Penguin Books, London. 1298 pps. 1993. Biologia come Ideologia: La dottrina del DNA Bollati Boringhieri, Italy. 98 pps. 1994. De DNA Doctrine. Uitgevery Bert Bakker. Amsterdam. 179 pps. Biology as Ideology. pp. 54-64. IN The Dancer and the Dance. E. Sagarra and M. Sagarra, editors. Trinity Jameson Quartercentenary Symposium.
194. 1991. Population genetics. Encyl. Hum. Biol. 6: 107-115.
195. 1991. Perspectives: 25 Years Ago in Genetics: Electrophoresis in the development of evolutionary genetics: Milestone or Millstone? Gen. 128: 657-662.
196. 1991. Population genetic problems in forensic DNA typing, RCL and D.L. Hartl. Sci. 254: 1745-1750.
197. 1992. Genotype and phenotype. pp. 137-144. IN Keywords in Evolutionary Biology, E.F. Keller and E.A. Lloyd, eds. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
198. 1992. Biology, p. 261. IN Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology, C. Morris, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
199. 1992. The dream of the human genome. NY Rev. Books XXXIX (10): 31-40.
200. 1992. Polemiche sul genoma umano, I. La Rivista dei Libri, Oct. 7-10.
201. 1992. Polemiche sul genoma umano, II. La Rivista dei Libri, Nov. 6-9.
202. 1992. The dimensions of selection by RCL and P. Godfrey-Smith. J. Phil. Sci. 60: 373-395.
203. 1992. Open peer commentary: Gene talk on target. Soc. Epist. 6(2): 179-181.
204. 1992. Letter to the Editor: Which population? Am. J. Hum. Gen. 52:
205. 1992. Inside and Outside: Genetics, Environment and Organism. Heinz Werner Lecture Series, Vol. XX. Clark University Press, Worcester, MA. 48 pps.
206. 1992. DNA data banking and the public interest, N.L. Wilker, S. Stawksi, RCL, and P.R. Billings. pp. 141-149. IN DNA on Trial by P.R. Billings, ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press.
207. 1993. Correlation between relatives for colorectal cancer mortality in familial adenomatous polyposis, S. Presciuttini, L. Bertario, P. Saia, C. Rossetti and RCL. Ann. Hum. Gen. 57: 105-115.
208. 1993. Letters, D.L. Hartl and RCL. Sci. 260: 473-474.
209. 1993. Risposta a Sgaramella (Reply to Sgaramella). La Rivista dei Libri.
210. 1993. Chelovechskaya Individulnost. Progress Publishers, Mosco. (Translation: Human Diversity, 1982).
211. 1993. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 5th edition. A.J.F. Griffiths, J.H. Miller, D.T. Suzuki, RCL and W.M. Gelbat. W.H. Freeman, NY. 840 pps.
212. 1994. Comment: The use of DNA profiles in forensic context. IN DNA Fingerprinting: A review of the controversy by K. Roeder. Stat. Sci. 9(2): 259-262.
213. 1994. Women versus the biologists. NY Rev. Books 41(7): 31-35.
214. 1994. Forensic DNA typing dispute. Nat. (Correspondence) 372: 398.
215. 1994. DNA fingerprinting, D.L. Hartl and RCL. Sci. (Letters) 266: 201.
216. 1994. Here we go again. Neri e bianchi per mi pari sono. La Republica (Milan), Oct. 25, pp. 24-25.
217. 1994. Response to Goldberg and Hardy. NY Rev. of Books.
218. 1994. Holism and reductionism in ecology, R. Levins and RCL. CNS 5(4): 33-40.
219. 1994. Facts and the factitious in natural sciences. pp. 478-491 IN Questions of Evidence, J. Chandler, A.I. Davidson and H. Harootunian, eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
220. 1994. A rejoinder to William Wimsatt. pp. 504-509. IN Questions of Evidence by J. Chandler, A.I. Davidson and H. Harootunian, eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
221. 1994. Response to Lander and Budowle. Nat. (Letter to the Editor) 372: 398.
222. 1995. Human Diversity. Scientific American Library, NY, 156 pps.
223. 1995. Promesses, promesses. Genetique et Evolution ll: II-V.
224. 1995. Genes, environment and organisms, pp. 115-139. IN Hidden Histories of Science, R.B. Silvers, ed. NY Rev. Book, NY.
225. 1995. The detection of linkage disequilibrium in molecular sequence data. Gen. 140: 377-388.
226. 1995. A la recherche du temps perdu. Configurations 2: 257-265.
227. 1995. Sex, lies and social science. NY Rev. of Books XLII(7): 24-29.
228. 1995. Il potere del progetto (The power of the project). SFERA Magazine 43: 11-34. Rome and Milan.
229. 1995. Theodosius Dobzhansky - A theoretician without tools. pp. 87-101. IN Genetics of Natural Populations: The Continuing Importance of Theodocius Dobzhansky, L. Levine, ed. Columbia University Press, NY.
230. 1995. The dream of the human genome, pp. 41-66. IN Politics and the Human Body, J.B. Elshtain and J.T. Lloyd, eds. Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville.
231. 1995. IV. Primate models of human traits, pp. 17-35. IN Aping Science. A Critical Analysis of Research on the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center by B.P. Reines. Committee on Animal Models in Biomedical Research, NY.
232. 1996. What does electrophoretic variation tell us about protein variation? A. Barbadilla, L.M. King and RCL. Mol. Biol. Evol. 13(2): 427-432.
233. 1996. La recherche du temps perdue. pp. 293-301. IN Science Wars, A. Ross, ed. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.
234. 1996. Of genes and genitals. pp. 178-193. IN Transitions: An International Review. Transition Publishers, Cambridge, MA.
235. 1996. The end of natural history? RCL and R. Levins. CNS 7(1):1-4.
236. 1996. Pitfalls of genetic testing, R. Hubbard and RCL. NEJM (Sounding Board) 334(18): 1192-1194.
237. 1996. Authors' Reply, R. Hubbard and R.C. Lewontin. NEJM (Correspondence) 335: 1236-1237.
238. 1996. In defense of science. Society 33(4): 30-31.
239. 1996. Evolution as engineering. pp. 1-10. IN Integrative Approaches to Molecular Biology. J. Collado, T. Smith and B. Magasnik, eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
240. 1996. Primate models of human traits. pp. 17-35. IN Monkeying with Public Health. R. Reines and S. Kaufman, eds. One Voice, Wisconsin.
241. 1996. Indiana Jones meets King Kong. Review of three books by M. Crichton. NY Rev. of Books (February 29).
242. 1996. Letter. (Zola biography review) NY Rev. of Books (May '96).
243. 1996. Evolution and religion. Am. Jewish Congress.
244. 1996. Letter. (On Horton's essay on genetics and homosexuality.) NY Rev. of Books.
245. 1996. Population genetic issues in the forensic use of DNA, pp. 673-696. IN The West Companion to Scientific Evidence, D. Faigman, ed. West Publishing Co., St. Paul. MN.
246. 1996. Detecting heterogeneity of substitutions along DNA and protein sequences. P.J.E. Goss and RCL. Gen. 143: 589-602.
247. 1996. False dichotomies. RCL and R. Levins. CNS 7(3): 27-30.
248. 1996. The return of old diseases and the appearance of new ones. RCL and R. Levins. CNS 7(2): 103-107.
249. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 6th edition. A.J.F. Griffiths, J.H. Miller, D.T. Suzuki, RCL and W.M. Gelbart. W.H. Freeman & Co., NY. 915 pps.
250. 1997. Billions and billions of demons. Review of The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by C. Sagan. NY Rev. of Books.
251. 1997. Nucleotide variation and conservation at the dpp locus, a gene controlling early development. B. Richter, M. Long, RCL and E. Nitasaka. Gen. 145(2): 311-323.
252. 1997. A scientist meets a visionary. IN Bucky's 100. In press.
253. 1997. Population genetics. IN Encyclopedia of Human Biology, 2nd edition. Academic Press, NY.
254. 1997. Genetics, plant breeding and patents: Conceptual contradictions and practical problems in protecting biological innovation. M. de Miranda Santos and RCL. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 112: 1-8.
255. 1997. The evolution of cognition: Questions we will never answer, pp. 107-112. IN Invitation to Cognitive Science, Vol. 4. D.N. Osherson, gen. editor, D. Scarborough and S. Sternberg, eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
256. 1997. Dobzhansky's "Genetics and the Origin of Species": Is it still relevant? Gen. 146: 351-355.
257. 1997. The Cold War and the transformation of the Academy, pp. 1-34. IN The Cold War and the University, Vol. 1. The New Press, NY.
258. 1997. The biological and the social, RCL and R. Levins, CNS 8(3): 89-92.
259. 1997. Chance and Necessity, RCL and R. Levins. CNS 8(2): 95-98.
260. 1997. Confusion over cloning. Review of Cloning human beings: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (June, 1997). NY Rev. of Books XLIV(16).
261. 1997. Biologie as Ideologie: Ursache und Wirkung bei der Tuberkulose, den menschlichen Genen und in der Landwirtschaft. Streitbarer Materialismus 21: 111-128.
262. 1997. A question of biology: Are the races different? IN Beyond Heroes and Holidays, E. Lee, D. Menkart and M. Okazawa-Rey, eds. Network of Educators on the Americas.
263. 1998. Review of "Unto Others" The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior by E. Sober and D.S. Wilson. Harvard University Press. NY Rev. of Books.
264. 1998. Gene, Organismo, e Ambiente. Guis. Laterza and Figli Spa, Rome. 97 pps.
265. 1998. The maturing of capitalist agriculture: Farmer as Proletarian. Mo. Rev. 50(3): 72-85.
266. 1998. Survival of the Nicest? New York Review of Books XLV(16): 59-63.
267. 1998. Foreword by R. Levins and RCL, pp. xi-xv. IN Building a New Biocultural Synthesis. A.H. Goodman and T.L. Leatherman, eds.
268. 1998. The confusion over cloning, p. 129-139. IN Flesh of My Flesh. The Ethics of Cloning Humans, G.E. Pense, ed. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham, MD.
269. 1998. How different are natural and social science? RCL and R. Levins. CNS 9(1):85-89.
270. 1998. Does anything new ever happen? RCL and R. Levins. CNS 9(2): 53-56.
271. 1998. Life on other worlds. RCL and R. Levins. CNS 9(4):39-42.
272. 1998. Las bases del conflicto en la explicación biológica, pp.96-106. IN Historia y Explicación en Biologia. A. Barahorio and S. Martínez, eds. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.
273. 1998. Realidades y ficciones en las ciencias naturales, pp. 107-122. IN Historia y Expilicación en Biologia. A. Barahorio and S. Matínez, eds. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.
274. 1998. The Evolution of Cognition: Questions we will never answer, pp. 107-132. IN An Invitational to Cognitive Science. Methods, Models, and Conceptual Issues, Vol. 4. D.N. Osherson, general ed. D. Scarborough and S. Sternberg, eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
275. 1999. Modern Genetic Analysis. A.J.F. Griffiths, W. M. Gelbart, J.H. Miller and RCL. W.H. Freeman and Co., NY. 675 pps.
276. 1999. Forward. IN The Ontogeny of Information, S. Oyama, R. Gray and P. Griffiths, eds. Duke University Press, Durham, N.C. In press.
277. 1999. Genotype and phenotype. IN International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, N.J. Smelser and P.D. Baltes, eds.-in-chief. Elsevier Science, Pergamon.
278. 1999. Are we programmed? RCL and R. Levins. CNS 10(2):71-75.
279. 1999. Does Culture Evolve? J. Fracchia and RCL. History and Theory. Studies in the Philosphy of History. Theme Issue 38. pp. 52-78. The Return of Science: Evolutionary Ideas and History. Wesleyan University, CT.
280. 1999. Locating regions of differential variability in DNA and protein sequenses. H. Tang and RCL. Gen. 153: 485-495.
281. 1999. The problem with an evolutionary answer. Review of The Dark Side of Man: Tracing the Origin of Male Violence. M.P. Gighlieri. Perseus Books. Nat. 400: 728-729.
282. 2000. Let the numbers speak. RCL and R. Levins. CNS (11)2: 63-67.
283. 2000. The politics of averages. RCL and R. Levins. CNS 11(2): 111-114.
284. 2000. Computing the organism. End Paper. Nat. Hist. 4: 94-95.
285. 2000. What do population geneticists know and how do they know it? pp. 191- 214. IN Biology and Epistemology. R. Creath and J. Maienschen, eds. Cambridge University Press, NY.
286. 2000. The problems of population genetics, pp. 5-23. IN Evolutionary Genetics. From Molecules to Morphology, R.S. Singh and C.B. Krimbas, editors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
287. 2000. It Ain't Necessarily So: The Dream of the Human Genome and Other Illusions. New York Review Books, NY. 330 pps.
288. 2000. The Triple Helix. Gene, Organism, and Environment. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 192 pps.
289. 2000. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 7th edition. A.J.F. Griffiths, J.H. Miller, D.T. Suzuki RCL and W.M. Glbart. W.H. Freeman and Co., NY. 860 pps.
290. 2000. Dobzhansky, Theodosious. IN Encyclopedia of Genetics, S. Brenner and J.H. Miller, eds. Academic Press, NY.
291. 2000. The maturing of capitalist agriculture, the farmer as proletarian. pp. 93-106. IN Hungry for Profit. F. Magdoff, F.H. Buttel and J.B. Foster, eds. Monthly Review Press, NY.
292. 2000. Schmalhausen's Law. RCL and R. Levins. CNS 11(4): 103-108.
293. 2001. Natural history and formalism, pp. 7-20. IN Thinking About Evolution: Historical, Philosophical, and Political Perspectives, R.S. Singh, C.B. Krimbas, D.B. Paul and J. Beatty, eds. Cambridge University Press. 606 pps.
294. 2001. Interview of R.C. Lewontin by RCL, D.B. Paul, J. Beatty and C.B. Krimbas, pp. 22-61. IN Thinking About Evolution: Historical, Philosophical, and Political Perspectives. R. S. Singh, C.B. Krimbas, D. B. Paul and J. Beatty, eds. Cambridge University Press. 606 pgs.
295. 2001. In the beginning was the word. Review of Who Wrote the Book of Life? A History of the Genetic Code. L.E. Kay. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 470 pps. Sci. 291: 1263-1264.

In Press or In Preparation:
2000-2001 Dobzhansky, Th. pp. _______. IN Encyclopedia of Genetics.
S. Brenner and J.H. Miller, eds. Academic Press. ____ pps.
Gene, Organism and Environment. pp. ______. IN Cycles of Contingency. S. Oyama, P. Griffiths and R. Gray, eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. ____ pps.
Cloning and the fallacy of biological determinism. pp. ______. IN Human Cloning: Science, Ethics and Public Policy. _______________ eds. Univ. of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL. ____ pps.
Preface. PP. ______. IN Character Concepts in Evolution. G. Wagner, ed. Academic Press, __________, __.. ____ pps.
The Place of Two-locus Theory in Population Genetics. RCL, M.W. Feldman and I. Franklin. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ____ pps.


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